Effects of obesity and fall risk on gait and posture of community dwelling older adults

Thurmon E. Lockhart, Chris Framesa, Rahul Soangra, and Abraham Lieberman
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ijphm_19_019.pdf1.34 MBAugust 28, 2019 - 9:00am

Although epidemiological studies clearly link increased fall risk to obesity in older adults, the mechanism through which obesity increases falls and fall risks is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if obesity (Body Mass Index: BMI>30 kg/m2) influenced gait and standing postural characteristics of community dwelling older adults leading to increased risk of falls.
One hundred healthy older adults (mean age 74.0∓7.6 years, range of 56-90 years) living independently in a community participated in this study. Participants’ history of falls over the previous two years was recorded, with emphasis on frequency and characteristics of falls. Participants with at least two falls in the prior year were classified as fallers. Each individual was assessed for postural stability during quite stance and gait stability during 10 meter walking. Fall risk parameters of postural sway (COP area, velocity, path-length) were measured utilizing a standard forceplate coupled with an accelerometer affixed at the sternum. Additionally, parameters of gait stability (walking velocity, double support time, and double support time variability) were assessed utilizing an accelerometer affixed at the participant’s sternum.
Gait and postural stability analyses indicate that obese older adults who fell have significantly altered gait pattern (longer double support time and greater variability) exhibiting a loss of automaticity in walking and, postural instability as compared to their counterparts (i.e., higher sway area and path length, and higher sway velocity) further increasing the risk of a fall given a perturbation.
Body weight/BMI is a risk factor for falls in older adults as measured by gait and postural stability parameters.

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Submission Keywords: 
Lyapunov Stability
biomedical healthcare devices
Submission Topic Areas: 
Health management system design and engineering
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